Outer retinal layer changes are associated with serum neurofilament levels

Outer retinal layer changes are associated with serum neurofilament levels in multiple sclerosis

Serum neurofilament levels were a good predictor of future outer retinal layer thinning in multiple sclerosis (MS) Monitoring the neuroinflammatory…

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GlcNAc regulates protein glycosylation

Low Sugar Metabolite Associated With Disability and Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis

Lower serum levels of the sugar metabolite GlcNAc was associated with progressive disability and neurodegeneration in patients with multiple sclerosis.…

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Autoimmune diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Autoimmune diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated

There is likely a positive association between autoimmune diseases (such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The noted associations raise the possibility of shared risk factors or disease mechanisms between ALS and autoimmune diseases. Shared genetic risk factors might contribute, as one study showed a higher than expected risk of Behcet’s disease, multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, and Wegener granulomatosis among the offspring of ALS patients. Further, C9orf72, a prevalent genetic cause of ALS, has also been related to the development of autoimmune diseases. Based on such previous knowledge,  a study published in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration performed a nationwide register-based nested case-control study to comprehensively assess the associations of 43 autoimmune diseases with the subsequent risk of ALS in Sweden. To evaluate the contribution of familial confounding to these associations, they also performed a follow-up study among the first-degree relatives of the cases and controls. they conducted a nationwide register-based nested case-control study including 3561 ALS patients diagnosed during 1990–2013 in Sweden and 35,610 controls that were randomly selected from the general population and individually matched to the cases on age, sex, and county of birth. To evaluate the contribution of familial factors on the studied association, they additionally studied the first-degree relatives (siblings and children) of ALS patients and their controls. Patients with ALS had a 47% higher risk of being previously diagnosed with autoimmune disease (OR 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.64), compared with controls. A positive association was noted for several autoimmune diseases, including myasthenia gravis, polymyositis or dermatomyositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, type 1 diabetes diagnosed younger than 30 years, multiple sclerosis, and hypothyreosis. The increased risk of any autoimmune disease was greatest during the year before ALS diagnosis, likely due to misdiagnosis. A statistically significantly increased risk was also noted during 2–5 years, but not earlier, before ALS diagnosis. First-degree relatives of ALS patients had however no increased risk of autoimmune diseases compared with first-degree relatives of controls. In summary, they found a positive association between autoimmune diseases and subsequent risk of ALS. Although it is difficult to rule out the possibility of misdiagnosis and surveillance bias, there is likely still a positive association between autoimmune disease (such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis) and ALS. The lack of increased risk of autoimmune diseases among siblings and children of ALS patients indicates little contribution of genetic and non-genetic familial confounding factors in the association.…

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Retinal Layer Thinning Can Predict Treatment Failure in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

Macular ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thinning predicts disability progression…

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